Kümmerer, Klaus

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Kümmerer, Klaus - Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, ebook


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Table of contents

Part I. General Aspects

1. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment – A Brief Summary
K. Kümmerer

2. Special Characteristics of Pharmaceuticals Related to Environmental Fate
V. L. Cunningham

Part II. Sources, Occurrence and Fate

3. Drug Production Facilities – An Overlooked Discharge Source for Pharmaceuticals to the Environment
D. G. J. Larsson

4. Substance Flows Associated with Medical Care – Significance of Different Sources
K. Kümmerer, A. Schuster

5. Pharmaceutical Residues in Northern European Environments: Consequences and Perspectives
R. Kallenborn, J. Fick, R. Lindberg, M. Moe, K. M. Nielsen, M. Tysklind, T. Vasskog

6. Antibiotics in the Environment
K. Kümmerer

7. Veterinary Antibiotics in Dust: Sources, Environmental Concentrations, and Possible Health Hazards
G. Hamscher, J. Hartung

8. Fate of Veterinary Medicines Applied to Soils
A. B. A. Boxall

9. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: Modeling Distribution and Fate
A. Di Guardo, D. Calamari, E. Benfenati, B. Halling-Sørensen, E. Zuccato, R. Fanelli

10. Environmental Exposure Modeling: Application of PhATE™ and Great-ER to Human Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
V. L. Cunningham

11. Exposure Assessment Methods for Veterinary and Human-Use Medicines in the Environment: PEC vs. MEC Comparisons
C.D. Metcalfe, A.C. Alder, B. Halling-Sørensen, K. Krogh, K. Fenner, M. Larsbo, J. O. Straub, T. A. Ternes, E. Topp, D. R. Lapen, A. B. A. Boxall

Part III. Effects

12. Effects of Pharmaceuticals on Aquatic Organisms
K. Fent

13. Another Example of Effects of Pharmaceuticals on Aquatic Invertebrates: Fluoxetine and Ciprofloxacin
G. Nentwig

14. Effects of Antibiotics and Virustatics in the Environment
K. Kümmerer

15. Realizing the Potential Benefits of Small Animal Models for the Aquatic Hazard Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals: A Conceptual Approach
T. H. Hutchinson

16. On the Ecotoxicology of Pharmaceutical Mixtures
T. Backhaus, J. Sumpter, H. Blanck

17. Chronic Mixture Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals to Daphnia – The Example of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
M. Cleuvers

18. The Ecotoxicological Effects of Pharmaceuticals (Antibiotics and Antiparasiticides) in the Terrestrial Environment – a Review
H. Schmitt, J. Römbke

19. Odorants – Potent Substances at Minor Concentrations: The Ecological Role of Infochemicals
U. Klaschka

Part IV. Risk Assessment

20. European Developments in the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals
J. Koschorreck, S. Hickmann

21. The State and the Future Development/Perspective of Environmental Risk Assessment of Medicinal Products for Human Use: Aspects of Its Regulations in Japan
Y. Yoshioka

22. Deterministic and Probabilistic Environmental Risk Assessment for Diazepam
J. O. Straub

23. Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Environmental Risk Assessments of Human Pharmaceuticals
T. Knacker, M. Liebig, J. F. Moltmann

24. Methodological Aspects Concerning the Environmental Risk Assessment for Medicinal Products; Research Challenges
M. H. M. M. Montforts

Part V. Risk Management

25. Strategies for Reducing the Input of Pharmaceuticals into the Environment
Klaus Kümmerer

26. Cost Action 636 Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle – A Network for Collaboration within Europe
A. Ledin, D. Patureau

27. Removal of Pharmaceutical Residues from Contaminated Raw Water Sources by Membrane Filtration
T. Heberer, D. Feldmann

28. Photooxidation as Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Hospital Effluents
A. F. Martins, T. G. Vasconcelos, C. da Silveira Frank, D. M. Henriques, K. Kümmerer

29. Pharmaceuticals and Environment: Role of Community Pharmacies
A. Niquille, O. Bugnon

30. Mitigation of the Pharmaceutical Outlet into the Environment – Experiences from Sweden
B. Gunnarsson, Å. Wennmalm

31. Pharmaceutical Waste
S. Castensson

Keywords: Environment, Ecotoxicology, Pharmacology/Toxicology, Analytical Chemistry, Microbiology, Environmental Management, Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution

Publication year
Page amount
552 pages
Natural Sciences

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