New micro and nanopatterning technologies have been developed in the last years as less costly and more flexible alternatives to phtolithograpic processing. These technologies have not only impacted on recent developments in microelectronics, but also in emerging fields such as disposable biosensors, scaffolds for tissue engineering, non-biofouling coatings, high adherence devices, or photonic structures for the visible spectrum. This handbook presents the current processing methods suitable for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructured surfaces made out of polymeric materials. It covers the steps and materials involved, the resulting structures, and is rounded off by a part on applications. As a result, chemists, material scientists, and physicists gain a critical understanding of this topic at an early stage of its development.