Refine, reduce, replace - These are the three demands that scientists have placed upon themselves in their search for alternatives to animal testing. Indeed much interdisciplinary research is being carried on today, and new fields have emerged, such as in-vitro toxicology.
The three R's call for new scientific insights. Moreover, validation and acceptance strategies have to be adapted, a process of much ongoing interest and vital concern to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
Researchers need to know exactly what has been achieved and accepted in alternatives to animal testing in science and politics. In this book they have the opportunity to benefit from the knowledge and expertise of leading researchers and influential representatives of national and international regulatory authorities.