This second edition provides an accessible introduction to the many diverse aspects of this subject. The book unites theory with examples from a wide range of taxa in a logical and progressive manner, and its straightforward writing style makes subjects such as population genetics and phylogenetics highly comprehensible to its readers. The first part of the book introduces the essential underpinnings of molecular ecology and opens with a review of genetics and a discussion of the molecular markers that are most frequently used in ecological research. The second half of the book then moves on to specific applications of molecular ecology, covering phylogeography, behavioural ecology and conservation genetics. The final chapter looks at molecular ecology in a wider context by using a number of case studies that are relevant to various economic and social concerns, including wildlife forensics, agriculture and overfishing.