Ancient Kings of Peru is a groundbreaking volume and an intriguing study, which will provoke debate in many quarters and reshape our understanding of the Andean past. Drawing on most current archaeological, ethnographic, and linguistic evidence, as well as intensive use of revalorized documentary sources and cross-cultural auxiliary data, Hiltunen offers a completely new insight to Andean prehistory. Focusing essentially on thorough analysis of a long-neglected primary source, the chronicle of Fernando de Montesinos and his dynasty lists, this study contributes in rehabilitating Montesinos as a reliable historical source, and addresses for the first time coherent perspective into Andean ethnohistoric past antecedating the Incas. Moreover, in this book Hiltunen challenges all conventional views of the Incas and presents a plausible new interpretation of their origin. Truly thought-provoking and readable, this book will capture the interest of scholars and general readers. It represents the opinion of a well-informed outsider to a discussion generally dominated by North and South American scholars.